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mono to stereo synthesizer

This circuit attempts to liven up mono sound sources by simulating a stereo signal. It does this by shifting certain frequencies between left and right to fool the ear. It can often produce a passable mock stereo sound to bring some depth to otherwise flat recordings. Of course, there is no way to produce real stereo sound from a purely mono source unless the synthesizer had a way to tell which direction the original sound came from, but an illusion is generally enough for all but the hard core audiophile.

Schematic

This is the schematic of the Stereo Synthesizer

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
R1 1 4.7K 1/4W Resistor
R2 1 10K 1/4W Resistor
R3 1 12K 1/4W Resistor
R4, R6 2 22K 1/4W Resistor
R5 1 11.K 1% 1/4W Resistor
R7 1 16K 1/4W Resistor
R8 1 100K 1/4W Resistor
R9 1 24K 1/4W Resistor
R10 1 18K 1/4W Resistor
C1 1 0.1uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C2, C3 2 0.47uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C4, C5, C7 3 0.01uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C6 1 0.013uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C8, C9 2 4.7uF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C10 1 0.22uF Capacitor
C11 1 47uF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C12 1 100uF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
D1 1 LED (Red, Green or Orange)
U1 1 TBA3810 (442-794)
S1 1 SPDT Switch
S2 1 SPST Switch
J1, J2, J3 3 RCA Jack Other suitable jack
MISC 1 PC Board, Wire, Case, Holder for D1, Socket for U1

Notes

  1. This circuit was sent in by oRbEq (email address unavailable).
  2. S2 controls power to the circuit. Switching S1 to ground bypasses the circuit and outputs mono sound to both output jacks. Setting S1 to R1 enables the synthesized stereo sound at the outputs.
  3. The circuit draws very little current and can thus be powered by most any well filtered 9V-12V source (including a standard 9V radio battery).

microphone mixer

This relatively simple mixer was designed for three dynamic microphones, but can be re-designed for more or less. Level and tone controls are available to tailor the sound to your needs.

Schematic

Schematic for mixer

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
R1, R2, R3 3 1K 1/4W Resistor
R4, R5, R6 3 10K Logarithmic Pot
R7 1 1Meg 1/4W Resistor
R8, R10 2 10K 1/4W Resistor
R9, R11 2 100K Linear Pot
C1, C2, C5, C6 4 0.1uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C3, C4 2 22nF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
U1, U2 2 741 Op Amp
J1, J2, J3 3 Input Jacks Of Your Choice
MISC 1 Board, Wire, Knobs, IC Sockets

Notes

  1. Email Anatoly I. Shikhatov with questions, comments, etc.
  2. R1-R3 are level controls. R9 and R11 control bass and treble, respectively.
  3. Since the circuit draws such low current, two 9V batteries can be used for a power supply.
  4. Building the mixer in a metal case will cut down on noise.

guitar fuzz effect

Fuzz is one of the classic guitar effects, and this simple circuit generates it quite well. The circuit is so compact that it can be built into guitars or amps that do not have built in fuzz to add that capability to the instrument. The circuit does not use much battery power, so a standard alkaline battery will last many years even with daily use.

Schematic

This is the schematic of the Voltage Inverter

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
R1, R2 2 100K 1/4W Resistor
R3 1 1K 1/4W Resistor
R4 1 1M 1/4W Resistor
C1 1 100uF 16V Electrolytic Capacitor
C2, C3 2 0.47uF Ceramic Disc Capcitor
D1, D2 2 1N4148 Diode
U1 1 741 Op Amp
MISC 1 Socket for U1, Jacks for Input/Output, Wire, Board, 9V Battery Snap, Case

Notes

  1. You can use any input/output jacks you want, but the standard for musical instruments such as guitars is a mono 1/4″ headphone plug and jack.

fm transmitter

Here is the schematic, PC board pattern, and parts placement for a low powered FM transmitter. The range of the transmitter when running at 9V is about 300 feet. Running it from 12V increases the range to about 400 feet. This transmitter should not be used as a room or telephone bug.

Schematic

This is the schematic of the FM Transmitter

PC Board Layout and Parts Placement

This is the printed circuit layout and parts placement of the FM Transmitter

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
C1 1 0.001uf Disc Capacitor
C2 1 5.6pf Disc Capacitor
C3,C4 2 10uf Electrolytic Capacitor
C5 1 3-18pf Adjustable Cap
R1 1 270 Ohm 1/8W Resistor 270 Ohm 1/4W Resistor
R2,R5,R6 3 4.7k 1/8W Resistor 4.7K 1/4W Resistor
R3 1 10k 1/8W Resistor 10K 1/4W Resistor
R4 1 100k 1/8W Resistor 100K 1/4W Resistor
Q1, Q2 2 2N2222A NPN Transistor 2N3904, NTE123A
L1, L2 2 5 Turn Air Core Coil
MIC 1 Electret Microphone
MISC 1 9V Battery Snap, PC Board, Wire For Antenna

Notes

  1. L1 and L2 are 5 turns of 28 AWG enamel coated magnet wire wound with a inside diameter of about 4mm. The inside of a ballpoint pen works well (the plastic tube that holds the ink). Remove the form after winding then install the coil on the circuit board, being careful not to bend it.
  2. C5 is used for tuning. This transmitter operates on the normal broadcast frequencies (88-108MHz).
  3. Q1 and Q2 can also be 2N3904 or something similar.
  4. You can use 1/4 W resistors mounted vertically instead of 1/8 W resistors.
  5. You may want to bypass the battery with a .01uf capacitor.
  6. An antenna may not be required for operation.
  7. A thanks goes out to Mike_Springer@iname.com for cleaning up the original image once displayed on the page. It looks a lot better now!

fet audio mixer

This simple circuit mixes two or more channels into one channel (eg. stereo into mono). The circuit can mix as many or as few channels as you like and consumes very little power. The mixer is shown with two inputs, but you can add as many as you want by just duplicating the “sections” which are clearly visible on the schematic.

Schematic

This is the schematic of the Mixer

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
R1, R3 2 10K Pot
R2, R4 2 100K 1/4 W Resistor
R5 1 6.8K 1/4 W Resistor
C1, C2, C3 3 0.1uF Capacitor
Q1 1 2N3819 Junction FET
MISC 1 Wire, Shielded (Metal) Case, Phono Or Other Plug For Output

Notes

  1. As many or as few channels as are required can be added to the mixer. Do this by just duplicating the input “sections” which are shown on the schematic.
  2. A shielded case is probably needed to reduce hum and help stop oscillations.
  3. The circuit can be powered by a single 9 volt battery.

digital volume control

This digital volume control has no pot to wear out and introduces almost no noise in the circuit. Instead, the volume is controlled by pressing UP and DOWN buttons. This simple circuit would be a great touch to any home audio project.

Schematic

Schematic for amp

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
C1 1 0.1uf Ceramic Disc Capacitor
U1 1 DS1669 Digital Pot IC (See Notes)
S1, S2 2 Momentary Push Button Switch
MISC 1 Board, Wire, Socket For U1

Notes

  1. U1 is available from Dallas Semiconductor.
  2. S1 turns the volume up, S2 turns it down.
  3. The input signal should not fall below -0.2 volts.
  4. Using a dual polariity power supply (+-5V works fine) will cure most clipping problems. You will have to check the data sheet for the correct pins to connect your voltages.

crystal radio

I have received a number of emails regarding schematics for crystal radios. After about the third email, I figured that I may as well put one on my page. So here it is. The circuit is very simple with only 5 parts, but performs very nicely when used with the right size antenna.

Schematic

This is the schematic of the Crystal Radio

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
C1 1 Tuning Capacitor (See Notes)
D1 1 1N34 Germanium Diode
L1 1 Loopstick Antenna (See Notes)
SPKR1 1 Crystal Earphone
MISC 1 Wire, Board, Wire For Antenna, Knob For C1

Notes

  1. C1 and L1 can be bought, or salvaged from an old AM radio (which is where I got mine). You may need to experiment with the connections on L1 in order to get the best (or any) signal.
  2. You may or may not need the ground connection. I never use it and the radio usually works fine without it.
  3. The bigger the antenna, the more stations you pick up and the louder you hear them. On my radio, I get about 10 stations, 3 of which are very loud in the earphone. Of course, not everyone has room for a 60′ antenna…
  4. A 47K resistor in parallel with the earphone will help properly load the detector (This suggestion from Kb8tej1@aol.com)

aircraft radio communication receiver

The communications between commercial aircraft and the ground can be interesting, amusing and sometimes even disturbing. However radios that receive the approximately 220MHz to 400MHz band commonly used for aircraft (both military and commercial) are not easily found. And scanners can be complicated, large and expensive. With an easy to build circuit such as this one, everyone can enjoy listening in on these conversations.

Schematic

Schematic of the aircraft receiver circuit

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
R1, R3 2 47K 1/4W Resistor
R2 1 10K 1/4W Resistor
R4 1 4.7K 1/4W Resistor
R5 1 5K Linear Taper Pot
R6 1 2.2K 1/4W Resistor
C1, C2, C3, C6 4 0.001uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C4 1 2.2pF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C5 1 1pF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C7 1 15uF 15V Electrolytic Capacitor
C8 1 18pF Variable Capacitor
D1 1 1N82 Diode
Q1 1 2N918 NPN Transistor
L1 1 See Notes
L2 1 1.8uH Inductor
ANT1 1 Approx. 18 Inch Wire Antenna
MISC 1 PC Board, Wire, Knob For C8

Notes

  1. The circuit originally appeared in the Think Tank column of the Sept. 1995 issue of Popular Electronics.
  2. L1 is made by winding 2 turns of 22 AWG magnet wire on a 5/32 drill bit. This inductor can be modified to shift the frequency range of the circuit.
  3. The antenna can also be placed at the anode of D1 if overload is a problem with it connected to the emitter of Q1
  4. R5 adjusts regen and thus sensitivity.

8 watt audio amp

177,664 47 58
Here is the schematic for an 8 watt audio amp. This amp can be used as a simple booster, the heart of a more complicated amplifier or used as a guitar amp.

Schematic

Schematic for amp

LM383 Pinout

Pinout for LM383 audio amp IC

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
C1 1 10uf Electrolytic Capacitor
C2 1 470uf Electrolytic Capacitor
C3 1 0.1uF Disc Capacitor
C4 1 2000uf Electrolytic Capacitor 2200uF
R1 1 2.2 Ohm Resistor Anything Within 10%
R2 1 220 Ohm Resistor Anything Within 10%
IC1 1 LM383 8 Watt Amp IC ECG1232, TDA2002

Notes

  1. IC1 MUST be installed on a heat sink.
  2. C3 is for filtering and to prevent oscillation and should not be omitted.
  3. The circuit can be built on a perf board, universal solder board or PC board, the PC board is preferred. I built the circuit on a perf board and had to add a low value inductor at the input to prevent oscillation.
  4. The circuit draws about 880 ma at 12 V.
  5. By swapping the values of R1 and R3, you can turn this amplifier into a guitar amp with no preamp required.
  6. If you can’t find 2000uF, then replace C4 with a 2200uF unit.
  7. If you add a 0.2uF capaciitor in series with a 1 ohm resistor to the output you can prevent oscillation of the circuit under certain conditions.
  8. Thanks to James Maloway for redrawing the schematic. The mew image is much easier to read then the old one.

50 watt amplifier

This is a handy, easy to build general purpose 50 watt amp. The amp has an input for a radio, TV, stereo or other line level device. It also has a phono input for a record player, guitar, microphone or other un-amplified source. With the addition of a low pass filter at the input, it makes a great amp for a small subwoofer.

Schematic

This is the schematic of the 50 Watt Amp

Parts

Part Total Qty. Description Substitutions
R1 1 200 Ohm 1/4 W Resistor
R2 1 200K 1/4 W Resistor
R3 1 30K 1/4 W Resistor
R5 1 1K 1/4 W Resistor
R6 1 5K 1/4 W Resistor
R7,R10 2 1 Meg (5%) 1/2 W Resistor
R8,R9 2 0.4 Ohm 5 W Resistor
R11 1 10K Pot
R12,R13 2 51K 1/4 W Resistor
R14 1 47K 1/4 W Resistor
C1 1 100uF 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
C2 1 0.011uF Capacitor
C3 1 3750pF Capacitor
C4,C6 2 1000pF Capacitor
C5,C7,C8 3 0.001uF Capacitor
C9 1 50pF Capacitor
C10 1 0.3uF Capacitor
C11,C12 2 10,000uF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
U1,U2 2 741 Op Amp
U3 1 ICL8063 Audio Amp Transister Driver thingy
Q1 1 2N3055 NPN Power Transistor
Q2 1 2N3791 PNP Power Transistor
BR1 1 250 V 6 Amp Bridge Rectifier
T1 1 50V Center Tapped 5 Amp Transformer
S1 1 SPST 3 Amp Switch
S2 1 DPDT Switch
F1 1 2 Amp Fuse
SPKR1 1 8 Ohm 50W Speaker
MISC 1 Case, Knobs, Line Cord, Binding Posts Or Phono Plugs (For Input And Output), Heatsinks For Q1 And Q2

Notes

  1. I know I skipped R4. That is not a problem🙂
  2. Distortion is less than 0.1% up to 100HZ and increases to about 1% at 20kHz.
  3. I haven’t been able to find anyone who sells a suitable T1. You can always use two 24V 5A units in series. If you are building two amps (for stereo), then I would suggest using an old microwave transformer and rewinding it. Follow the instructions in the 12V To 120V Inverter, execpt wind 26 turns, twist a loop (center tap) and wind 26 more turns. That should work out to around 50 volts. You may need to add or remove turns depending on your transformer.
  4. Q1 and Q2 will require heatsinks.
  5. You may have trouble finding U3 because it is discontinued. Please don’t email me about sources…I can’t find it either. See if any of the sources in Where To Get Parts has it. A possible source was sent in by JBWilliams:
    Zigma Electronics
    8803 Shirless Ave.
    Northbridge, CA 91324
    United States
    Phone: 818-772-7590
    

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